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The worldwide incidence of lung cancer is about 1.8 million and in 1.6 million people diagnosed with lung cancer it results in mortality. The incidence of lung cancer increased steadily to the late 1980s and became the commonest killer especially in women. Over the last decade however, the lung cancer incidence has dropped possibly due to the reduction in number of smokers. 95% of lung cancers are classified as small cell lung cancer(SCLC) or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These two subgroups of lung cancer behaves distinctly to each other and has very different prognosis, management and staging systems.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common and lethal disease. The risk of developing CRC is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The pathogenesis of CRC is affected by dietary, genetic and environmental factors. Colorectal cancer screening – faecal occult blood followed by regimented colonoscopy and decreased the potential of missing progressive disease. The incidence of CRC and its mortality varies greatly from country to country. It is the most common cancer in men and second most common in women.
World wide there are about 1.6 million men diagnosed with prostate and nearly 400,000 of them will die of prostate cancer. It is the most common cancer in men and is the 7th leading cause of men. Having said that, prostate cancer grows slowly. It is noted that 60-80% men in their 80s will have prostate cancer but the overall cancer mortality is only 3 %. The survival of the prostate cancer is related to many factors however early detection seems to be important. Low grade cancer detected by PSA screen rarely need to be actively treated unless there is evidence of stage progression.
Globally breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, the most common cancer in women and the cancer caused most amount of death in women. Upon diagnosis, breast cancer staging is of paramount importance to decide its extent. This will then dictate the management options. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in developed countries and its incidence is highest in countries such as America and Australia. Notable risk factors for breast cancer include diet, body weight, age at menarche, lactation and later age at first birth. In the US, breast cancer caused over 40,000 death a year. It is a major health issue. The medical profession however noted a drastic reduction in incidence of breast cancer with cessation of Hormone Replacement Therapy as well as the introduction of widespread mammography based breast screening programs. As a consequence breast cancer mortality has been reducing since the introduction of breast cancer screening.
Most malignancies of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues fall into distinct diagnostic categories that are defined by morphologic, immunophenotypic, genetic, and clinical features. Malignancies that do not fit defined entities are placed in categories that capture diverse tumors (eg, peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified) or in borderline “gray zone” categories that are used for cases that share features of more than one entity (eg, Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma, or Hodgkin lymphoma).
Skin cancer occurs when your skin get over exposed to sun without protection. Countries like Australia and New Zealand have high incidence of skin cancer There are 2 main tropes of skin cancer : non – melanoma and melanoma. The non melanoma often occurs on face, neck, lip and shoulders are these are typically caused by sun exposure. The 2 most common types of non-melanoma skin cancer are called “basal cell carcinoma” and “squamous cell carcinoma”. These cancer can be treated fairly easily often by local excision. Melanoma, however, behaves very differently to non melanoma and can often spread and cause death.
Brain tumours can be broadly classified into primary and secondary. The primary brain tumours are a group of cancer arising from different cells of the central nervous system. They varies greatly and hence behave and progress in a diverse fashion. Secondary cancers to the brain, most commonly from skin, breast and lung cancer cause symptoms depending on their metastatic location. Brain tumors can produce symptoms and signs by eroding brain tissues, compression on surrounding tissues and raised intracranial pressure.