The vast majority of women are at average risk (less than 15 percent lifetime risk) of developing breast cancer. Women who have a personal history of cancer of the ovary, breast, peritoneum, or fallopian tube, a genetic mutation (eg, BRCA1 or BRCA2), or a history of previous radiotherapy to the chest between ages 10 and 30 are at high risk for developing breast cancer.

For average risk women under age 40, screening is not warranted since the incidence of breast cancer is low and the performance characteristics of mammography are poor.

For women age 40 to 49, screening is optional.

For women age 50 to 74, we suggest screening.

For women age 75 and older, we suggest screening only if their life expectancy is at least 10 years.

For average-risk women who decide to be screened, we recommend screening with mammography Every two years.

High-risk women warrant referral to a high-risk screening clinic for evaluation and possible intensified surveillance and consideration of genetic testing and risk reduction treatment (eg, chemoprevention and prophylactic surgery). High-risk women include those who have a personal history of ovarian, peritoneal, tubal, or breast cancer; a genetic predisposition (BRCA or other susceptibility genes); prior radiotherapy to the chest; or other breast cancer risk factors, such as a strong family history, resulting in a calculated lifetime risk of developing breast cancer of greater than 20 percent.


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is central to the development of cervical neoplasia and can be detected in 99.7 percent of cervical cancers. Subtypes HPV 16 and 18 are found in over 70 percent of all cervical cancers.

Risk factors for cervical cancer are mostly associated with an increased risk of acquiring or having a compromised immune response to HPV infection; these include: early onset of sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, a high-risk sexual partner, history of sexually transmitted infections, history of vulvar or vaginal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer, and immunosuppression. Oral contraceptive use and cigarette smoking are associated with increased risk of cervical cancer. The most common histologic types of cervical cancer are squamous cell (69 percent of cervical cancers) and adenocarcinoma (25 percent).


Consultation with a Breast Surgeon/Gynaecologist


Pelvic Ultrasound

Breast Mammography

PAP Smear (2nd yearly)

9 Strain Cervical Cancer Vaccine